Annapurna Circuit

The Annapurna Circuit

The Annapurna Circuit is a classic trek that used to be considered one of the most beautiful hikes in Nepal. The circuit goes through incredibly varied terrain; taking you first through paddy fields and dense forests, before passing steep cliffs and gorgeous mountainscapes as it traces the Marsyangdi valley ever upwards. The trek can last for between one to three weeks and can cover between 150 to 300 kilometres depending on where one begins and ends the trek, as well as how extensively the side trails are explored. The circuit itself encircles the Annapurna massif, with the two side trails of the glacial tarn of Tilicho Lake (elevation : 4920m) and the glacial basin of Annapurna Sanctuary (elevation : 4130m) straddling the north and south of Annapurna I (elevation : 8091m), the 10th highest mountain in the world. The Annapurna Circuit crosses the Thorong La Pass (elevation : 5416m) at its highest point before descending rapidly towards arid Kagbeni (elevation : 2800m), which lies alongside the incredibly deep Kali Gandaki gorge, and is the gateway into Upper Mustang as well as the Tibetan Plateau (Tibetan: བོད་ས་མཐོ།). This rapid descent is the very reason why the circuit is almost always traveled anti-clockwise as the gradual ascent to the high-altitude pass dramatically decreases the chances of trekkers getting sick from the altitude.

Difficulty Rating : 5.2 / 10.0 (Class 7 - Challenging)

*Cick here to learn more about the difficulty rating.

**Please bear in mind that this rating applies to those who do not employ the services of porters. A lighter load significantly reduces the difficulty levels, i.e. from "challenging" to "moderate." This discrepancy is even more pronounced with high-altitude hikes.

Noticed that I mentioned that it used to be considered one of the most beautiful hikes in Nepal? This is because since then, roads are being built around the Annapurna Circuit and have encroached upon it all the way up to Muktinath (elevation : 3800m) in the west, and Manang (elevation : 3540m) in the east. The roads have and will undoubtedly benefit the locals as the roads make the transport and selling of agricultural produce more convenient, decrease the costs of obtaining supplies (although despite that, prices have not dropped and meals are still incredibly exorbitant), and decrease the time taken to access emergency medical facilities. The downside of building these roads is that their unsightliness could negatively impact tourism.

Fortunately, a set of new 'alternative' trails that attempt to bypass the roads were marked out by Prem Rain and Andrees de Ruiter, way back in August 2011. This new route is known as the 'NATT' (New Annapurna Trekking Trails) and, with the permission of ACAP (see below), has been marked out with red and white markers for the main route, and blue and white markers for the side trails.

Interactive Location Map

The map below has sections of the path that I followed hyperlinked and clicking on each section of the route will bring you to its respective page (if the map does not work for any reason, you may also find the links at the top of this page). The GPS routes for each leg of the journey can also be found at the end of the post for each of the respective days.

Annapurna Base Camp
Kathmandu Preparation
ACT Day 01 - Ngadi to Srichaur
ACT Day 02 - Srichaur to Tal
ACT Day 03 - Tal to Danakyu
ACT Day 04 - Danakyu to Thanchok
ACT Day 05 - Thanchok to Dhikur Pokhari
ACT Day 06 - Dhikur Pokhari to Ngawal
ACT Day 07 - Route to Kang La
ACT Day 08 - Ngawal to Khangsar
ACT Day 09 - Khangsar to Tilicho Base Camp
ACT Day 10 - Tilicho Lake
ACT Day 11 - Tilicho Base Camp to Yak Kharka
ACT Day 12 - Yak Kharka to High Camp
ACT Day 13 - Thorong La
ACT Day 14 - Ranipauwa to Kagbeni
ACT Day 14 - Tiri
ACT Day 15 - Kagbeni to Jomsom
The Descent

Elevation profile for the entire Annapurna Circuit route (hovering your cursor over the image below will reveal highpoints ).
The Annapurna Base Camp section has not been included in the elevation profile

For those who also have a Suunto GPS device, the GPX file for each segment can be found at the
end of each day's entry. The entire route can also be downloaded here (right click and save link as).

The Plan

The plan this time around was not only to test out these NATT routes and to trek the Annapurna Circuit before the roads completely destroyed the region but also to hike during the monsoon season. Despite the central parts of the circuit being deep within the rain shadow that is cast by the Annapurna massif, trekking the circuit in the monsoon still poses its own set of challenges. I did however find that there were also some very obvious advantages:


1) Since the Annapurna Circuit is one of the most popular and well-beaten trails in the whole of Nepal, it indubitably attracts hoards of tourists. Hiking in the low-season avoids these trekker 'conveyor belts' and will give you a lot more space to breathe.

2) The lack of crowds makes it easier to get rooms. If you avoid the large villages and stop at the 'satellite hamlets' like we did, there is a high chance that you will be the only guest at the guesthouse. In fact, out of the 15 days during which we were up in the mountains, we had the guesthouse to ourselves for 10 of them. This way, you will definitely be able to negotiate for cheaper rates. We decided to purchase breakfast, instead of eating the food we had brought along, at the guesthouses that decided to waive the accommodation costs (which were at least half of them).

3) The plentiful rain brings with it never-ending and beautifully vibrant wildflowers and ubiquitous waterfalls. The volume of water was so high that the torrential waterfalls caused the river below to churn with dramatic violence.


1) The rain clouds and incessant mist obscured the views of the mountains more often than we liked.

2) Leeches. To be fair, we were only attacked by leeches on one out of the 15 days. Nonetheless, we were still left with 50-60 bites all over our ankles.

3) Landslides were very prevalent. Although this does not affect walking access on the trails all that much, it is a significant obstacle to vehicles. When planning your descent down the mountain by vehicle, please do take this into consideration.


I also decided to set a few challenges for myself. The first was to enter and exit the range by using public buses only: I had heard from several different sources that there were syndicates that controlled vehicular access to the roads, and that apparently these syndicates imposed fees on certain types of vehicles, and were even inclined to use force against those who refused to comply. I could not find a way to verify this information and thus decided to just avoid the 4WD services that could be found in most of the towns. I also decided to bring a completely different set of Olympus lenses for my camera: instead of the Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 12-40mm f/2.8 PRO and Olympus M.Zuiko ED 60mm f2.8 Macro (my go-to combination for outdoor activities), I brought with me the Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 8mm f/1.8 FE PRO and Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 75mm f/1.8, two much faster but highly-specialised prime lenses.

Annapurna Conservation Area

The Annapurna Conservation Area is Nepal's first and largest conservation zone, and has been set up to protect the Annapurna massif and the biodiversity-rich areas that surround it (entry into which requires an ACAP permit). This initiative is quite vital as the number of tourists that have flocked to this region has soared over the years--the region currently attracts about 60% of the total number of trekkers that visit Nepal. This is not only due to the cultural and natural richness of the region, but also because of its accessibility; the range is so close to the city of Pokhara that trekkers are able to reach Annapurna Base Camp (elevation : 4130m) in just a matter of days.

This surge in popularity has resulted in the establishment of thousands of guesthouses [I intentionally choose to use the term 'guesthouse' instead of 'teahouse' to distinguish between lodges that cater to trekkers and the authentic Nepali teahouses], as well as other services to accommodate the trekkers' whims and fancies. The consumption of wood in the region stresses forest resources, and to make matters worse, visiting trekkers consume multiple times more wood, either directly or indirectly, than the locals do.

The amount of litter that is generated is another matter of concern. It is estimated that an average trekking group of 15 trekkers generates about 15kg of non-biodegradable waste on a 10-day trek, which amounts to tonnes of waste produced in the mountains annually. As such, the reduction of my ecological footprint when in the mountains was of paramount importance to me. So to keep it low, I decided to do the following:

Reducing your footprint

1 - Treating water - I generally use a combination of UV-sterilisers (such as the Steripen), water filters, and water-purification tablets in order to treat water. This ensures that I do not need to purchase bottled water (which should be the very last option due to the single-use plastic packaging), or boiled water from either the lodges or filling stations, as it can be fairly hard to determine whether the fuel that is used to boil the water contributes to deforestation.

2 - Minimising purchases - Most guesthouses rent out their accommodation for paltry sums, but the difference is made up for in their exorbitant food prices. In the mountains, the rule is you eat where you sleep. With this in mind, I always had dinner in the guesthouse that I slept in. I minimised the purchase of cooked meals by ensuring that I checked in after lunchtime, and most often than not, left whilst everyone else was eating breakfast.

3 - Cooking with a gas stove - After setting off on the trail in the morning, I would normally find a quiet corner and make a quick cup of coffee with my Jetboil Zip and have some muesli whilst taking in the wonderful views. I was especially careful to not let anyone from the guesthouses know that I even carried a stove as it represents a loss of income for them. I also never ever used the stove indoors as most of the lodges are made of wood and doing so would be an immense fire hazard.

Next: Annapurna Circuit Preparation

Nepal Overview

Annapurna Circuit Preparation

The local buses to Besisahar (elevation : 760m), Bhulbhule (elevation : 840m), and to Pokhara , leave from the Naya ("New") Bus Park, which is also known as Gongabu Bus Park . The TIMS & ACAP counters on the other hand, are not only located in Maligaon, but can also be found at the Nepal Tourism Board near Ratna Park, which is located just east of Thamel. As such, we decided to find a hotel somewhere in between Naya Bus Park and Thamel so that everything was within walking distance. Hotel Rising Home turned out to be just perfect.

I really wish I had discovered Hotel Rising Home sooner, as it would have saved me a great deal of time and hassle on all my trips to Nepal over the years. The hotel has great value (NPR1070 per night for a room for two), is strategically located for those who plan to take the local buses that head westward and who do not mind walking around, and most importantly, is neat and clean. Chandan, the owner, speaks excellent English and is helpful and very willing to impart information and stories from his seven years of guiding experience.

Hotel Rising Home

Contact Person: Chandan (Owner)

Address: Rayamajhi Marga, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal

Telephone: +977 1-4389373

Fax: +977-01-4389373

Email: info@hotelrisinghome.com

Getting There

Getting to the Nepal Tourism Board from Hotel Rising Home is relatively straightforward. First head south towards Thamel and begin veering east towards the Garden of Dreams, and past all the air-conditioned stores of all the branded outdoor gear outlets. Turn right when you reach Kanti Path and head southward toward Ratna Park. The Nepal Tourism Board lies on the eastern side and a little further south of Ratna Park. The walk should take you about half an hour.

The walk from Hotel Rising Home to the TIMS & ACAP counters at the Nepal Tourism Board


The items that I brought with me were almost identical to what I had brought on the Annapurna Base Camp trip. I did make a few changes to the list however, since it was summer (monsoon) this time around, such as omitting the Outdoor Research Stormtracker Gloves, and replacing the Mountain Designs Firefly Softshell Jacket with the Mountain Designs Monsoon 13 GTX Rain Jacket. Since I was planning to use my Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 8mm f/1.8 FE PRO to take CFWA (Close Focus Wide Angle) shots, I decided to bring the Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 75mm f/1.8 instead of the Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 60mm f/2.8 Macro for increased reach when shooting close-ups of the distant mountains.

Hovering your cursor over the image below will show you the numbers for the items.

01.One Planet Strezlecki (85l) (Gridlock Waterproof Canvas)
02.North Face Sleeping Bag (Gore Dry Loft, 80% goose down 700 fill, -20 degrees rating)
03.Morakniv Garberg (Bushcraft Knife)
04.Suunto Buff
05.Outdoor Research Stormtracker Gloves
06.360 Degrees Stainless Steel Bottle
07.Camelbak StoAway
08.Salomon S-Lab Peak 20 (20l)
09.Mountain Designs Firefly Softshell Jacket
10.Salomon S-Lab X Alp Mid Hoodie (Mid Layer)
11.Salomon S-Lab X Alp Pro Pant
12.Blackhawk Medic Roll (Expedition-grade Medical Kit)

13.Epinephrine Kit
14.LED Lenser P7.2
15.Olympus M.Zuiko ED 60mm f2.8 Macro
16.Black Diamond ReVolt Headlamp
17.Sawyer Mini Water Filter
18.Suunto Spartan Ultra All Black Titanium
19.Survival Kit with Suunto A-10 Compass
20.Kindle Paperwhite
21.Travel Documents & Notebook
22.Jetboil Zip (Ultra-portable cooking system)
23.GoalZero Guide 10 Plus Solar Kit
24.Salomon X-Ultra 3 GTX

Please note though, that the image does not include the food that I brought with me, as well as the camera that was used to take the photo (Olympus OM-D E-M1 with the Olympus M.Zuiko Digital ED 8mm f/1.8 FE PRO). The full list of all the equipment that I own and use can be found on my '100 item list'.

Annapurna Circuit Day Hike Gear

Kitted out for the day-hike from Base Camp to Tilicho Lake

Since I already had Dexamethasone and Acetazolamide, I decided to drop by one of the pharmacies in Thamel just to stock up on Nifedipene (NPR35), in order to complete my array of high-altitude medication. Nifedipene is a medication that is used for High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), which is a dangerous condition where fluid leaks from the capillary beds in the lungs and into the alveoli. The drug is said to work by reducing pressure by relaxing the heart muscles and blood vessels. Of course, medication is nowhere near as effective as immediate descent to lower elevations when treating AMS, HAPE, and HACE. Immediate descent is always the definitive treatment.

Annapurna Circuit Permits

The TIMS and ACAP permits are the only other permits that you will need other than the Nepal visa itself, which costs USD40 (NPR4400) for 30 days. We arrived at the Nepal Tourism Board before 14:00, just as the staff were returning from their lunch break. The office was very large with relatively clean toilets as well as drinking water dispensers, so we took the opportunity to refill our 3-litre water bladders to the brim. The Nepal Tourism Board even had a photo exhibition at that time that was in conjunction with the International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples. The exhibition showcased the cultures and traditions of the various indigenous communities that are found in Nepal, and highlighted their plight and marginalisation.

The application processes for the permits were extremely fast. We filled up two forms and had them ready by the time the counters had reopened. Unlike in Pokhara , the centre had no service for passport photos, so we had obtained a set of four beforehand. We first went to the ACAP counter and made the payment of NPR2300, and then made our way straight to the TIMS counter (NPR2000). A minute or two later we were done! We then made our way back out and had 'lafing' as a snack (NPR50), before heading to Gorakhali Foodland for dinner, which was the cheapest food we could find that was close to Thamel. After a scrumptious meal of vegetable thali (NPR150) and buff momo (NPR110), we returned to the hotel to pack and to get ready for an early night's sleep.

Next: Bus to Besisahar

Bus to Besisahar

We woke up at the crack of dawn and began the 20-minute walk north to Naya Bus Park . We walked at a fairly relaxed pace and arrived well before 07:00. The rows of ticketing counters were located in the central building, but to our dismay, we discovered that there were no direct buses to Bhulbhule (elevation : 840m) and would have to make a switch at Besisahar (elevation : 760m). The bus was a little small and fairly packed, but for such a long journey, it was well-worth the price of just NPR360. Just before setting off, we were surprised when the bus touts told us that we would have to pay another NPR200 just to store each backpack on the roof! We were only able to fit just one backpack under our legs, so just had to comply. I climbed up on the roof with the two boys (I am very sure they were just teenagers), and had to resort to supervising them after seeing their rather inept way of placing the backpack. They secured the bag with clove hitches and two slipknots which I was fairly happy with, but I had to spend a few minutes convincing them that a tarp to cover the bag was indeed necessary. It was monsoon season afterall. I only paid them the money after I was completely satisfied, and the bus departed soon after, at 07:25.

Getting There

Naya Bus Park lies just north of Thamel at the corner where the Ring Road swerves southward. From Hotel Rising Home, you just need to walk north-west until you reach the road (Parijat Sadak Road) that runs parallel to the Bishnumati River. Turning right here and following the road north will bring you directly to Naya Bus Park. The walk should take you about 20 minutes.

The walk from Hotel Rising Home to Naya bus park

The eight hour-long journey left me completely drained and exhausted, far more than a tough hike ever would have. The road was bumpy and narrow, and the ceaseless swerving and the constant blaring of Hindi music was a complete assault to my senses. The 170-kilometre journey followed roads that ran parallel to rivers for almost the entire way, except for the first 50 kilometres or so. The first major river that we encountered was the Trishuli River, which begins its long journey from the border of China and Nepal north of Kathmandu, and drains the Langtang massif. 60 kilometres further on, we reached the confluence of the Trishuli River and the mighty Marsyangdi River, the latter of which we would follow for the rest of the journey. Just south of this confluence is the Seti Gandaki River which runs from Pokhara, and not too long after that, the confluence of the Kali Gandaki River which drains the Dhaulagiri and Annapurna massifs to the west of the Annapurna Circuit, as well as the Annapurna Sanctuary via the Modi Khola River.

Black kites in Kathmandu

Black kites (Milvus migrans) can be seen en masse soaring in thermals around urban areas such as Kathmandu. These bird of prey are opportunistic hunters and have even been known to swoop in and snatch food right out of people's hands!

The food outlet that the bus stopped at was much cheaper than the ones that are frequented by the tourist buses. The vegetable khana lunch only cost NPR180 instead of the normal tourist price of around NPR250 or so. We were also entertained by a hilarious conversation amongst a large group of very typical U.S. women who had stopped for a toilet break. They were discussing how one would go about using a squat toilet: 'techniques' such as which direction to face, how low to squat, and how to balance oneself. We were not surprised in the slightest that they were from 'Good ol' U.S of A'.

After lunch, the bus continued to follow the river which swerved north at Bandipur, and departed from the main road that continued west on its way to Pokhara. The bus passed lush green forests that covered the hills and vast swaths of vibrant green paddy fields (Oryza sativa). The plants on the sides of the road would otherwise have been the same vibrant green if not for the dulling of the dust. We finally reached the sprawling town of Besisahar (elevation : 760m) at 15:45, after stopping for countless times and unloading a bewildering array of items: massive tyres, boxes of coffee whitener, bed frames, and sacks of vegetables.

The bus to Bhulbhule departed at 16:30 from the side of the main road. The journey was bumpy to say the least, and was akin to an off-road journey that is usually only managed by 4WD vehicles. At least the short but frequent stops to pick up and drop off passengers provided us with some respite. The bus stopped at Khudi (elevation : 790m), which was the location of the trail head for the alternative trail to Siurung, where we met a loquacious and very friendly man called Rupesh. After talking for a while, we found out that Rupesh owned a small home-stay called 'Hotel Hilton' (Telephone: 9819145439) up in Ngadi (elevation : 930m), which was the last stop for the bus and where we planned to disembark.

First night on the Annapurna Circuit

Hotel Hilton in Ngadi

Needless to say, we ended up following Rupesh back. He and his small family were so amiable that we did not even bother trying to negotiate the price of the room (NPR400/2). His place was rather basic, but still offered free charging points, WiFi, and cold showers, which was a luxury compared to what you are likely to encounter in the Sagarmatha region, and I enjoyed the dinner of vegetable curry (NPR380/2) and dhal bhat (NPR400/2).

Next (Day 1) : Ngadi to Srichaur